Basic methods of scientific research

scientific researchApplying a competent and comprehensive methodology will avoid rejection or revision of the text. Scientific methods are a set of tools, principles that are selected to build the further theoretical and practical part of the article.

To master modern methods of scientific research, you need to study many sources, analyze all the information. Also, you can save time and find answers to pressing questions in the training course.

Within the framework of the course, in an understandable language in a convenient, accessible form. “research methodology development and methods selection” will be observed. The course professor is a member of the editorial board of the scientific journal.

Modern methods of scientific research

Today there are several concepts of the method of scientific research, but they differ from each other. Translated from Greek, the word itself means “path or tracking”, a term based on this is considered as a way of knowing that helps to achieve a set goal through a certain sequence of actions.

Basic theoretical methods of scientific research

  1. Induction is the movement of thought from the particular to the general, knowing individual facts, you can come to the law underlying them. Its peculiarity is that the information received, as a rule, is of a probabilistic nature, and not true.
  2. Deduction is the opposite, the particular follows from the general. This chain of inferences, unlike the previous one, is logical, its links lead to an irrefutable conclusion.
  3. Axiomatic, the specificity of the method – at the beginning of the process, a set of basic provisions is set, they do not need proof and are taken as explicit, in fact, they are an axiom.
  4. Analysis base on the mental decomposition of an object into parts that make it up.
  5. Synthesis combines the inferences obtained in the course of the previous research method into a single whole.

Basic empirical research methods

  1. Observation is popular. It characterizes the perception of certain phenomena in integrity and dynamics. The method is practical.
  2. The experiment is complex and is often used in pedagogy and psychology.
  3. Questioning is convenient because it helps to collect a solid amount of data in a short period of time.
  4. Conversation, interview. Survey methods that are practical.

Classification of methods of research knowledge

The choice of effective methods of scientific knowledge is necessary for the successful implementation of the research. Depending on the direction of science, the ways to achieve the goal may differ. Research methods divides into several groups: observation, comparison, experiment, measurement, abstraction.


This process involves using the senses to gain knowledge. In most cases, it applies as part of other methods.


As a result of comparison, it is possible to establish common features or differences with another phenomenon or object. Essential signs should compare that will help answer the main questions of the cognitive task. Revealing the common inherent in two objects is the way to the knowledge of laws.


The procedure happens out to get a specific value using generally accepted units of measurement. This method of cognition gives accurate numbers that allow you to get information about the object under study. The measuring equipment used affects the measurement efficiency.


This method involves the systematic study of an object under certain conditions. The experiment allows you to study the phenomenon in extreme or isolated from the environment conditions. A scientist can always intervene in the process, change the course of the phenomenon. The experiment is carried out both with the object itself and with its created model.


The essence of this method is to abstract from the unimportant parameters that the object endows with, to fix the phenomena of interest to the researcher. As a result of abstraction, the scientist receives information about some of the features of the object.

Application of scientific research methods

scientific researchIn their work, they are all interconnected, complement each other, and meet the assigned tasks. They should apply taking into account the specifics of each, the existing pros and cons.

Special attention can pay to the comparative historical analysis, it allows you to highlight cause-and-effect relationships, build a logical chain. Your own conclusions can apply on aim information methods that are scientific, generally accepted. Acquaintance with the history of the issue enriches with extra facts, can prompt a consideration of the problem from a new point of view.

Conversations and interviews have the main disadvantage – significant time costs, even if they are not individually, but in groups. It is important to define the goal arising from the research task.

It recommends that you first outline a plan of questions, and in the course of your activities adhere to it, without unnecessary details. It is necessary to provide in advance the possibility of recording information and create a comfortable emotional, psychological environment.


In surveys, anonymity is often the basis of credibility. There are some requirements to consider:

  • Use direct and indirect questions;
  • Make a preliminary check of their understanding on a small number of respondents, based on this, make adjustments;
  • To ensure a representative sample as an effective means of obtaining information.

We also note that in recent years, one can notice an increase in the popularity of qualimetric or quantitative methods in the humanities, which were before characteristic only for natural science research. But the main need is to use a set of methods that are selected under the distinctive features, characteristics of a particular scientific research.

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