Second – Write your reaction to Villalta opinion about the discussion.
“In the Artic, Eskimo men were the main hunters for food. Hunting large animals, such seals, walrus, and whales was a dangerous and difficult task. Women,
on the other hand, had the responsibility of gathering plants and manufacturing materials for clothing. The list of women’s role is endless… they also
cared for and raised the children, butchered the animals that their husbands had hunted, prepared meals for the family, taught and educated the female
children, tanned skins, made clothing for the family and other skill related tasks. The challenging responsibilities from the Indians in the Artic required
collaboration from both females and males in order for the family to survive. Berdaches were cross-dressers, usually men who took the role of females. In
the Aleut society, berdaches were accepted and sometimes young males were raised as females to serve as concubines.
For the Subarctic Native Americans, general cooperation was also an important characteristic. However, there was a strict labor division based on sex. The
males in the tribe were again responsible for the hunting. Men hunted mainly caribou, moose, but they also relied on salmon, fish, whitefish and some sea
mammals. Women carried the weight of gathering plants for foods and medicine as well as most of the domestic duties. They manufactured materials for
clothing and housing. As a form of transportation, the subarctic Indians used toboggans (similar to a sled) to transport heavy materials, and toboggans
were pulled by women. Although the men made canoes, it was the women’s responsibility to maintain them. Women were treated badly (dogs were considered
better than them), and they endured beatings. Finally, like the Arctic Indians, some Subarctic Indian groups also had berdaches whom took on the domestic
duties like females.”
Third – Write your reaction to other Villalta opinion about the discussion.
It seems like the roles taken by females and males were strictly divided. It reminds of Latin American machismo… I find it interesting that these Indian
tribes believed in supremacy of men over women. If they were liberal enough to accept berdaches, whey didn’t anyone fight for equal women’s right? Or at
least proper and just treatment with the absence of domestic violence.
A. were strictly disciplined.
B. were born with the mother in a kneeling position.
C. were put on a cradleboard.
D. b and c
E. all of the above
2. The Cree diet included
A. fish in the summer but not in the winter.
C. all of the above
3. Two musical instruments of the Western Woods Cree are
A. drums and bull-roarers.
B. drums and rattles.
C. rattles and flutes.
D. bull-roarers and flutes.
4. Shamans were not important in the Subarctic.
5. A band headman in the Subarctic
A. would be replaced if he didn’t lead well.
B. kept the peace.
C. decided when and where to move.
D. all of the above
6. A Cree canoe
A. was made with hollowed out cypress trees.
B. weighted about twenty pounds and often capsized.
C. used birch and birchbark.
D. was used all year round.
7.Marriages for the Cree
A. involved a large, special ceremony.
B. relied on romantic love in choosing partners.
C. involved a bride price.
D. never ended in divorce.
8. Some of the Quebec Inuit trained their children in both male and female roles.
9. The two most essential economic activities of an Aleut village were
A. hunting caribou and polar bears.
B. fishing and herding island sheep.
C. fishing and sea mammal hunting.
D. growing crops in the short summer and hunting seals.
10.The Arctic is sometimes called a “desert” because
A. it has dry sandy areas that resemble deserts under the snow.
B. the area is very low in rainfall.
C. nothing grows there.
D. the subsoil never thaws.
11. Arctic shamans always counseled peace and would have nothing to do with warfare.
12.The typical Arctic house was
A. made of snow.
B. made of driftwood or whalebone and sod.
C. made of rock and straw.
D. always portable.
13. The Quebec Eskimo owned
A. land but not houses or boats.
B. fish weirs and hunting territory.
C. houses and boats but not land.
14. The four basic cultural divisions of the Arctic include
A. Northern and Western Eskimo.
B. only Alaskan natives.
C. Icelandic Eskimo.
D. Algonkian Eskimo.
15.The Aleut live in a colder climate than the Eskimo due to the Japanese current.