On which issue are the stage theories of Erikson and Piaget in agreement?A.whether all people reach the highest stages.B.whether the stages represent hierarchic integrations.C.whether biological maturation is a powerful force.D.whether the stages are qualitatively differentErikson’s stages, compared to Piaget’s stages, are:A.more universal.B.more difficult to attain.C.more maturationally governed.D.all of the above.In therapy with severely disturbed children, one of Mahler’s most common goals was:A.to promote a more pleasurable symbiosis.B.to increase the infant’s independence.C.to overcome internal object constancy.D.to teach the child essential social skills.According to the text, the most significant criticism of Mahler’s theory has to do with:A.the phase of normal autism.B.the phase of normal symbiosis.C.the neglect of fathers’ role in development.D.the absence of statistic data.Mahler’s concept of object constancy:A.has little to do with Piaget’s concept.B.means overcoming the world of make-believe.C.is a prerequisite to basic trust.D.is an internal image of the mother.The text criticizes Bettelheim for:A.lack of clarity on the concept of autonomy.B.encouraging too much unsocial behavior.C.not providing statistical reports beyond his impressions.D.failing to recognize the importance of behavioral approachesAccording to the text, research suggests childhood amnesia:A.really exists.B.isn’t well-documented.C.is valid prior to the age of 2 years.D.is still just a tentative hypothesis.Compared to most developmental psychologists, Schachtel was:A.maturational.B.environmental.C.cognitive.D.phenomenological.Jung believed that depression in mid-life is basically:A.a natural part of development.B.due to social failure.C.self-punishment.D.the work of the animus principle.According to Jung, what is not true of archetypes?A.they are basically unknowable.B.they are universal tendencies in all of us.C.they include the Self.D.they reside in the personal unconscious.In Jung’s view,A.development in the first half of life is naturally one-sided.B.adults should get beyond the Self.C.people should remain youthful as they grow older.D.images of the afterlife interfere with individuation.Children’s early negatives suggest that:A.child language is different from adult language.B.language acquisition matures at an incredible speed.C.the principle of structure dependence is indeed valid.D.all of the above.One of Chomsky’s basic disagreements with Piaget concerns the extent to which language:A.involves symbols.B.is spontaneously created by the child.C.is a specialized activity.D.possesses universal properties.Which research has most seriously challenged Chomsky?A.parents’ simplified speech to young children.B.parental feedback to children’s errors.C.studies of pidgins and creoles.D.research on operant conditioning.Chomsky’s position differs from that of:A.Piaget on the extent of genetic control.B.Bandura on the influence of models.C.Werner on the specialized nature of language.D.All of the aboveWho among the following sees no value in regression to childlike thinking?A.Werner.B.Kohlberg.C.Maslow.D.some psychoanalysts.Maslow’s phenomenological bent places him closest to:A.Piaget.B.Schachtel.C.Gesell.D.Rousseau.The text says that individual differences in children’s abilities:A.has been a focus of the developmentalist tradition.B.has not been a focus of the developmentalist tradition.C.is found in the work of Maslow and many of his followers.D.characterizes many but not all in the developmentalist traditionIn the Epilogue, the author’s discussion of difficult instruction:A.draws on the ideas of Werner.B.draws on the ideas of Rousseau.C.suggests how we can raise the bar.D.suggests more time is needed in outdoor nature.In the Epilogue, the author’s main objection to standardized testing centers on:A.lack of preparation time.B.the effects on love of learning.C.well-documented test biases.D.time away from nature studies.Must we go through all the stages in Erikson’s theory? In Piaget’s theory? ExplainHow is the therapeutic approach of Bettelheim to autistic children similar to the child-rearing philosophy of Gesell?If Rousseau were alive, how highly would he regard Schachtel’s work? Explain.a) Contrast the positions of Bandura and Chomsky on how children develop language. b) How does either evidence on “motherese” OR on creoles bear on this debate?Briefly describe a basic similarity between the views of Maslow and 3 of the following theorists:a. Rousseaub. Gesellc. Piagetd. Schachtele. Jungf. WernerToday’s standards movement implores all of us to do a better job of preparing children for the future. What does Crain, the textbook author, say about this goal?